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【引用】运动的十大好处(除了能减轻体重)10 Benefits of Exercise (Other Than Weight Loss)  

2011-07-17 08:29:52|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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运动的十大好处(除了能减轻体重)10 Benefits of Exercise (Other Than Weight Loss) - yueyue - yueyue的博客

 

[注:本文译自近期美国读者文摘(Reader’s Digest)。为了照顾对英语感兴趣的朋友,以英汉对照的形式发表。在翻译的准确性上,有绝对的把握,否则量也不敢如此。不当之处,请指正。]

 

1.It reduces your risk of the common cold.
A consistent, medium-intensity routine is a proven cold-stopper. Taking a brisk, 40-minute walk 4 days a week, for example, can cut the number of colds you experience by 25 to 50 percent and can make the colds you do catch shorter by half, studies show. Moderate exercise boosts the number and activity level of important immune-system players called natural killer cells.

 

1.运动能减少感冒

 

持之以恒的中等强度的常规运动已被证明能防止感冒。例如,研究表明,每周4天进行40分钟快速的步行,能减少感冒的机会25%-50%,并能使感冒病程缩短一半。中等强度的动运能提高重要的免疫系统成分称为自然杀伤细胞的数量和活性水平。

 

 

2.It improves depression without drugs.
In one study that pitted brisk walking or jogging against the antidepressant sertraline (Zoloft) or a combination of the drug plus the exercise, after 4 months, all three groups had about the same improvement in their depression, but at 6 months, the people who kept up the exercise, had the lowest rates of remission.

2.运动能减轻抑郁,而无需药物

 

一项研究比较了快走或慢跑与抗抑郁剂舍曲林(左洛复)或运动联合应用药物组对减轻抑郁的作用,在4个月后,所有三组对抑郁有几乎相同的减轻,但到6个月,坚持运动的人有最低的缓解率。

 

3.It helps prevent and treat Osteoporosis.
Though brisk walking will help, it may not be sufficient. The impact as your feet hit the ground stimulates cells in the bones of your legs, hips, and spine to build new bone, preventing the thinning that can lead to osteoporosis. But higher-impact activities such as dancing, hiking, jogging, jumping rope, climbing stairs, or playing tennis do more to stimulate bone growth and maintain bone density. (Check with your doctor first if your bones are already thinning or if you have joint problems or are prone to falls.) Strength-training is also important. It stimulates bone growth when muscles and ligaments "tug" on bones as you lift weights, use resistance bands or machines, or do exercises (think push-ups) that rely on your own body weight to build muscle. Your best bet is a combination of high-impact exercise and strength-training; in one study, this strategy preserved bone mineral density in women who had just reached menopause, a time when loss of bone density accelerates.

3.运动有助于防治骨质疏松症

虽然快走有助于防治骨质疏松症,但它可能是不足够的。其作用由于足冲击地面,刺激腿部、臀部和脊柱的骨骼细胞建立新骨,从而防止能导致骨质疏松症的骨稀疏。然而,更大作用的活动如跳舞、远足、慢跑、跳绳、爬楼梯或打网球能做更多的运动,从而刺激骨生长和维护骨密度。(如果已有骨质疏松或有关节问题或易于跌倒,首先找医生检查。)力量训练也重要。由于举重、用拉力带或拉力器或做其他依靠体重增强肌肉的运动(如俯卧撑),当肌肉和韧带“拉”向骨骼,它能刺激骨生长。最好的方法是大作用运动与力量训练相结合;一项研究表明,这种方法能保持刚达经绝期女人的骨矿物质密度,刚达经绝期妇女骨密度丧失加速。

 

4.It reduces chronic pain.
At least 10 minutes of aerobic exercise — biking, fast walking, running on the treadmill — can significantly improve chronic pain, likely by releasing natural pain relievers called endorphins.

4.运动能减少慢性疼痛

 

至少10分钟的有氧运动——骑自行车,快走,在跑步机上跑步——能明显减轻慢性疼痛,其机理可能是通过释放叫做内啡肽的这种自然疼痛缓解物质。

 

5.It battles chronic fatigue syndrome.
A workout may leave you exhausted, but you'll probably feel better in the long run. British researchers asked a group of chronic fatigue syndrome patients to walk or perform some other aerobic exercise at least 5 days a week, increasing their daily activity to a maximum of 30 minutes. After 3 months, these patients were twice as likely as others who took flexibility or relaxation classes to say that their symptoms had improved and that they felt better. A year later, three-quarters of the exercisers had resumed normal daily activities, and some had returned to work.

5.运动能治疗慢性疲劳综合征

锻炼可能使你处于精疲力竭的状态,但在长跑中可能会感觉好转。英国研究者要求一组慢性疲劳综合征的病人每周至少5天行走或进行其他有氧运动,每日活动量最大增加至30分钟。3个月后,这些病人2倍于采取机动方法即放松组病人,说症状改善,而且感觉好转。一年后,锻炼组中四分之三的病人恢复正常的日常活动,而且有些病人重返工作。

 

 

6.It can help prevent colon cancer.
Getting regular exercise can lower your risk by up to 25 percent; a half-hour walk, four times a week, is all it takes. And if you're a regular meat-eater, cutting back on red meats and processed meats such as hot dogs, sausage, and lunch meats can also help. Experts at the National Cancer Institute estimate that people who eat red meat or processed meats twice a day most days increase their cancer risk by 24 percent; eating it once a day raises risk by about 20 percent above normal.

6.运动有助于预防结肠癌

 

经常锻炼能降低结肠癌的危险高达25%;半小时的行走,每周四次,仅此而已。而且,如果你是惯常肉食者,减少红肉(牛羊肉)和肉制品如热狗、香肠和午餐肉的摄入量,也能有助于预防结肠癌。国立癌研究所的专家估计,多数情况下每天吃两次红肉或肉制品的人,增加结肠癌的危险为正常以上的24%;每天吃一次肉,其危险增加大约为20%

 

7.It prevents and relives constipation.
A way to get things moving is to get yourself moving. Exercise can reduce straining and speed the passage of food through your digestive system. For some people, it cuts the odds of becoming constipated by about 40 percent.

7. 运动能预防和减轻便秘

使东西移动的方法是要使你自己运动。锻炼能减少紧张,并能加快食物通过消化道。对有些人,运动减少变成便秘的机会约为40%

 

8. It can battle diabetes.
It depends where you are in the course of your disease. At first, eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight can be quite effective at battling insulin resistance, the metabolic "glitch" behind type 2 diabetes. Insulin tells cells to absorb blood sugar. Staying sensitive to insulin can help delay your need for medication or allow you to use smaller doses. In one study, people with type 2 diabetes who lost a significant amount of weight — an average of 24 pounds — within 1? years after their diagnoses were twice as likely to bring their blood sugar levels under control as those who did not. Food choices matter, too. In a recent Italian study of people with type 2 diabetes, 56 percent of those who followed a traditional Mediterranean diet (think fish, olive oil, whole grains, nuts, and vegetables) were still medication-free after 4 years compared to just 30 percent of those on a low-fat diet with the same number of calories. The "good" fats from the Mediterranean diet seem to nurture insulin sensitivity, the researchers say.

8.运动能治疗糖尿病

这取决于你在病程中的哪个阶段。起初,吃健康饮食、经常锻炼以及减轻体重对治疗隐藏在2型糖尿病背后的胰岛素抵抗和代谢“小故障”是十分有效的。胰岛素能命令细胞吸收血糖。保持对胰岛素的敏感性能有助推迟给药,并使用药剂量减小。在一项研究中,2型糖尿病人有明显的体重减轻——平均减轻24磅——在诊断后的一年半内血糖得到控制是不减轻体重病人的2倍。食物选择问题亦如此。在最近一项意大利的2型糖尿病人研究中,在4年后仍无需用药,采取传统地中海饮食(想必是鱼、橄榄油、五谷杂粮、坚果以及蔬菜)那些病人中达56%,相比,具有相同数量的卡路里低脂肪饮食的病人中仅30%。研究人员说,从地中海饮食中得到的“好”脂肪似乎培养了胰岛素的敏感性。

 

9. It can help treat Parkinson's Disease.
Playing your kids' or grandkids' Wii — the Nintendo video game system in which the users move around as if actually playing various sports — could improve some symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In one study, 20 people with the disease played Wii tennis, bowling, and boxing an hour a day, 3 days a week for 4 weeks. After the 4 weeks, the participants moved more easily, their fine motor skills improved, and they had more energy. Scores on a depression test also dropped to zero. The benefit may come from increased levels of dopamine released during exercise and while playing video games. Dopamine is the chemical lacking in the brains of people with Parkinson's.

9.运动有助于治疗帕金森病

玩你的孩子或孙子辈的Wii——日本任天堂游戏公司视频游戏系统,在其中使用者到处移动,就好像实际在玩各种运动一样——能改善帕金森病人的一些症状。在一项研究中,20例此病病人玩Wii网球、保龄球以及拳击,每天1小时,每周3天,持续4周。在4周以后,这些受试者运动更容易,精细运动技能改善,而且,更有力量。抑郁测试得分也降至零。此益处来自在锻炼时或在玩Wii视频游戏过程中多巴胺释放增加。在帕金森病人的脑中缺乏多巴胺这种化学物质。

 

10. It can prevent strokes.
Increase your heart rate. Just 30 minutes a day of exercise strenuous enough to get your heart beating faster can reduce your risk of stroke 20 percent. Exercise harder and watch the risk drop another 7 percent. (Check with your doctor about what amount of exercise is right for you.)

10.运动能预防中风

运动能增加心率。每天30分钟足够用力以致心跳加快的运动能减少中风的危险20%。更费力的锻炼,可观察到中风危险又下降7%。(至于对你多少运动量合适,与医生联系。)

运动的十大好处(除了能减轻体重)10 Benefits of Exercise (Other Than Weight Loss) - yueyue - yueyue的博客
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